среда, 6 марта 2013 г.

Fiber Fineness Tables and Processed Wool Terminology

Fiber Fineness Tables and Processed Wool Terminology

Fiber Fineness Table by Bradford Count and Micron Count

FinenessMicron CountBradford Count
Fine Wool17-2064s
Medium Wool22-2962s-50s
Coarse Wool31-3448s-44s
Very Coarse Wool36-4040s-36s

Sheep Wool Fineness Table by Bradford and Micron Count

Sheep BreedMicron CountBradford Count
Arapawa1780s
Balwen Welsh Mountain3256s
Beulah Speckled Face26-3156s-50s
Black Welsh Mountain28-3154s-50s
Blue Faced Leicester24-2860s-56s
Bond23-2860s-56s
Border Leicester37-4048s-36s
Borderdale30-3554s-48s
Bowmont1780s
British Bleu du Maine27-3256s-50s
British Charollais24-2860s-56s
British Friesland28-3154s-50s
British Oldenburg27-2848s-46s
BritishVendeen23-2860s-56s
Blue Texel27-2846s
California Red28-3154s-50s
California Variegated Mutant21-2564s-60s
Cheviot28-3356s-48s
Clun Forest25-2858s-56s
Columbia24-3160s-50s
Coopworth35-3948s-44s
Cormo21-2364s-58s
Corriedale26-3358s-50s
Cotswold34-4046s-36s
Dartmoor36-4040s-36s
Debouillet19-2480s-62s
Derbyshire Gritstone27-3156s-48s
Devon Closewool28-3454s-46s
Devon Longwool36-4040s-32s
Dormer23-2560s-58s
Dorset Down26-2958s-54s
Dorset Horn27-3256s-50s
English Leicester37-4046s-40s
Exmoor Horn28-3254s-48s
Finnish Landrace24-3160s-50s
Galway24-3356s-50s
Gotland28-3252s-48s
Gromark28-3454s-46s
Hampshire26-3058s-54s
Hebridean29-3650s-44s
Herwick36-4040s +
Hill Radnor28-3354s-48s
Icelandic (thel)19-2270s-64s
Icelandic (tog)28-3154s-50s
Ile de France23-2860s-56s
Jacob26-3356s-48s
Kerry Hill26-2956s-52s
Lincoln36-3840s-36s
Llanwenog25-2858s-56s
Lleyn26-3156s-50s
Lonk28-3454s-46s
Manx Loaghtan28-3254s-46s
Masham29-3450s-46s
Merino17-2470s-60s
Montadale25-3058s-54s
Mule28-3454s-46s
Navajo-Churro (outercoat)38+36s +
Navajo-Churro (undercoat)22-2362s
NZ Halfbred25-3158s-50s
Norfolk Horn26-2956s-54s
North Ronaldsay26-3156s-50s
Oxford Down28-3454s-50s
Panama25-3058s-50s
Perendale28-3556s-48s
Polwarth21-2664s-58s
Polypay22-2862s-56s
Portland26-3156s-50s
Rambouillet18-2480s-60s
Romanov (outercoat)40+36s +
Romanov (undercoat)16-2280s-64s
Romeldale21-2564s-60s
Romney33-3750s-46s
Rouge de l’Ouest23-2560s-58s
Rough Fell (mixed coat)36-40+40s +
Ryeland26-3256s-50s
Scottish Blackface36-40+40s +
Shetland23-3060s-50s
Shropshire26-3058s-50s
Soay29-3650s-44s
South Dorset Down25-2858s-56s
South Hampshire25-2858s-56s
South Suffolk23-2860s-56s
Southdown23-2860s-56s
Spelsau (outercoat)37-4046s-40s
Spelsau (undercoat)19-2270s-64s
Suffolk26-2858s-56s
Swaledale (mixed coats)36-40+40s-30s
Targhee22-2764s-58s
Teeswater30-3650s-44s
Texel26-3456s-46s
Tunis25-3058s-50s
Welsh Half-Bred26-3154s-46s
Welsh Hill Speckled Face29-3350s-48s
Welsh Mountain32-4048s-36s
Welsh Mountain Badger Face26-3456s-46s
Wensleydale30-3650s-44s
White Faced Woodland28-3154s-50s
Zwartbles26-2956s-54s

Other Fibers Fineness Table by Micron Count

FiberMicrons
Alpaca17-35
Angora12-16
Bombyx Silk10-13
Camel15-22
Cashmere14-18.5
Cotton13-21
Guanaco14-18
Hemp18-23
Linen15-17
Llama22-29
Mohair25-45
Quiviut14-19
Tussah Silk28-30
Vicuna13-16
Yak18-20

Raw or Processed Wool

Raw
Simple. Pure. Natural. Explore the unique, inherent qualities of your fibers without someone else making the decision of how it will be processed. For the fiber artist, sheep lover, and adventurous in spirit, these wools are for you.
Sliver (Top)
Beautiful, smooth, combed fibers. For those of us who want our fiber ready to spin. Wool slivers have been commercially combed. The fibers lay parallel and are perfect for spinning worsted style yarns, spinning from the fold, and for your own blending experiments. The results are smooth yarns. This is the stuff dreams are made of. Inspire yourself.
Roving
Is time of the essence? Do you love long draw? Roving is your answer. Unlike slivers, the fibers prepared into rovings are carded so that they overlap and are not parallel. If you are looking for a yarn that has loft, bounce, and are soft, choose rovings, batts, or rolags.
Batts
Batts are made from fibers that have been processed by a drum carder or other carding machines. They are suitable for woolen spinning. The fibers will overlap like they do in rovings.
Rolags
Rolags are produced with hand carders. They are easy to work with, are similar to roving, and the fibers overlap. For instructions on how to make a rolag, see here.
http://spinning-squee.livejournal.com/3855.html?thread=58639

среда, 6 февраля 2013 г.

Winter calm'


'Winter calm' by LuthienEf

Be inspired by calm colors.

Cocktail Statement Adju... 
$27.00
Handmade brown genuine ... 
$29.00
Animals Brooch Cuprum D... 
$40.00
Handmade Necklace, Casu... 
$14.00
Gift packing tags 6 sil... 
$15.00
Flower ring, victorian ... 
$15.00
Earrings of copper wir... 
$20.00
Ivory Off-White Lace Sh... 
$149.00
White Woman's Knitt... 
$44.99
Earrings and ring set -... 
$15.50
Natural Wooden Spool Se... 
$14.00
Blue Coin purse, Change... 
$23.00
Decorative Pillow Cover... 
$26.00
ON SALE, Chocolate cand... 
$4.20
Bicycle necklace - Hips... 
$14.00
Tilda goose - one of a ... 
$20.50

суббота, 2 февраля 2013 г.

Natural Dyes - Mordants Part 1


The Maiwa Guide to Natural Dyes
http://maiwahandprints.blogspot.ca/2013/01/natural-dyes-mordants-part-1.html What they are and how to use them

We've divided the section on Mordants into three parts. We start with some explanations and then describe different mordants, tannins, and other additives. We will give detailed procedures in part three. What follows depends on knowing what fibre you are working with. You may wish to review fibres before reading on.

There are only a few dyes(1) (such as indigo) that can effectively be put on a fibre without first mordanting.

Mordanting the fibre is perhaps the most important step in successful dyeing. It is often rushed or even omitted because no visible change occurs. When we teach natural dyes, we notice that if students can grasp the necessity of good mordanting before they embrace the excitement of colours, then they are well on their way to successful and satisfying results.

Advanced dyers will use the mordanting step itself as a means to influence colour. Mordants can be added through blockprinting or silkscreening techniques, or the application can be controlled through resist techniques. This gives a variety of methods to add pattern to a cloth. Some very subtle effects may be created through control of mordants and tannins.

Mordanted yarns - almost indistinguishable from unmordanted yarns.

Mordants facilitate the bonding of the dyestuff to the fibre.There are many mordants and each one will encourage a different shade from a particular dyestuff. As mentioned earlier we do not recommend mordants such as chrome, copper and tin. Although these metallic salts work well to fix the dyes and provide an alternate palette, they are a health hazard and produce toxic waste which requires special disposal. Mordants such as alum, iron, and tannin are safer to use and can produce myriad colours when used in conjunction with the appropriate natural dye. The most frequently used method is premordanting (before dyeing). Occasionally the mordant is added to the dyebath (one-pot dyeing) and sometimes it is added after the dyebath (postmordanting or after-mordanting). Mordant procedures for protein and cellulose fibres are not interchangeable.




mordants

Alum – Potassium aluminum sulfate is the mordant most frequently used by dyers for protein (animal) and cellulose (plant) fibres and fabrics. It improves light and washfastness of all natural dyes and keeps colours clear. It is inexpensive and safe to use (see our safety notes). This form of alum is refined from bauxite, the raw state of aluminum ore, and is free from the impurities (such as iron) some other alums can contain.

 Use at 12-20% WOF. Sometimes we use a combination of two mordants of alum. For example, we will mordant once with alum at 15% WOF and then again with a fresh mordant bath of alum at 15% WOF. Or we will do a tannin/alum/alum mordant to achieve slightly richer colours.



Alum Acetate – Aluminum acetate is sometimes used as the preferred alum mordant for cellulose fibres and fabrics. It is refined from bauxite and acetic acid is used as a purifying agent. For this reason some natural dyes develop to a richer shade on cellulose. Alum acetate is the recommended mordant for printing with natural dyes. It is more expensive and sometimes hard to find.

Use at 5-8% WOF

Homemade Alum Acetate – The dyer may make aluminum acetate from sodium acetate and potassium aluminum sulfate and, depending on the availability of these materials in your area, this can be cost effective.

To make enough aluminum acetate to mordant 1 kilo of fabric, combine in 3 litres of hot tap water:
     150 g sodium acetate 
 This can be added to your mordant bath. 

Cream of Tartar (cream of tartar)– is the sediment produced in the process of making wine. It is an optional addition to the alum mordant bath and to some dyebaths. It is used to soften wool, brighten shades, and point the colour of some dyes (it will move the fuschia of cochineal to a true red). Cream of tartar works best with animal or protein fibres and is seldom used with plant or cellulose fibres. Use at 5-6% WOF.
Up next - Tannins.

1 Dyes which do not require mordants are sometimes referred to as substantive dyes. Indigo is the best example of a substantive dye. Occasionally the term substantive will be used for dyes like walnut and myrobalan which are are also tannins. For the natural dyer who wishes the greatest flexibility we recommend that fibres always be properly mordanted.

Posts in the Maiwa Guide to Natural Dyes

Introduction
Water
Fibres
Weight of Fibre
Scouring
Our Approach
Mordants Part 1
Mordants Part 2
Mordants Part 3

пятница, 1 февраля 2013 г.

Juicy spring!

http://www.etsy.com/treasury/MTAzNTAyM\

Juicy spring!